ЮГОСЛАВСКИЕ МИНЫ


GORAZDE

Description

`Gorazde’ is a pressure-operated Anti-Personnel (AP) mine named after the town where it was first discovered and is thought to have been manufactured. The mine has a plastic outer casing which is pointed at the base and has a broad flange at the top. A plastic plunger fits into the hollow body from the top, retained by a force-fitted plastic collar. The explosive charge in the top of the plunger is a `spit-back’ detonator assembly of the type used in Russian Anti-Tank (AT) submunitions: this is a very small shaped charge, pointing upwards. Beneath the plunger is a spring-loaded striker made from aluminium: this is retained by a ball-bearing held in a notch at the base of the plunger. A safety pin runs through the mine body and plunger to prevent any movement until the mine is armed. The mine is matt black.

Operation

Once placed, the mine is armed by withdrawing the safety pin from the mine body to free the plunger. Sufficient pressure forces the plunger down into the body of the mine, compressing the striker spring. As the ball-bearing enters a wider section of the body it escapes, releasing the striker onto the detonator assembly. The detonation of the small shaped charge is focused upwards into the target.

Neutralisation

A pin is inserted into the hole in the side of the mine body, and through the plunger, to neutralise the mine. The slightest misalignment of the components will prevent neutralisation.

Disarming

The central plunger containing the explosive components can be removed to disarm the mine. This procedure is hazardous since it requires the safety pin to be removed and the plastic collar around the plunger to be levered out.

Specifications (approx)

Weight 120 g
Explosive weight 5 g
Operating pressure 10-15 kg
Diameter 58 mm
Height 115 mm
 

General information

Used in Bosnia, Croatia
Emplacement Manual
Detectability Fairly easy to detect
Anti-handling None
Blast resistance Likely to resist overpressure (because of small plunger area)
Cross reference Similar in design and appearance to the Canadian C3A1 `Elsie’ AP mine
Manufacturer Locally manufactured

Notes

A variant of this mine has the direction of the fuze mechanism reversed to detonate a charge in the base of the mine. This variant is used to initiate a wooden-cased AT mine which accepts two Gorazde mines in wells in the top surface.

GORAZDE


PMA-1A

Description

PMA-1A is a minimum-metal Anti-Personnel (AP) blast mine developed from the PMA-1, but varying only in minor detail. The mine is a box type with a plastic body and hinged lid. The base section houses the removable main charge and the fuze assembly, which rests on a plastic anvil. The main charge is a standard 200 g TNT demolition block, which has a plastic threaded fuze well cast into one end. The UPMAH-1 fuze assembly consists of a small Bakelite casing: one end is sealed and contains a friction-sensitive composition, the other is open and accepts a No 8 detonator. The open end of the fuze casing has an M10 x 1 male thread and rubber O-ring to fit the TNT block; during transit, a cap fits over this thread to seal the fuze. Fixed inside the opening end of the lid is a plunger which contacts the anvil when the lid is lowered. Holes in the opening end of the base and lid align so that a pin can hold the box closed during transit. When the pin is inserted in the base section with the lid raised, it acts as a safety device. PMA-1A is normally matt olive green and has no markings.

Operation

The mine is armed by removing the cap from the UPMAH-1 fuze and inserting a No 8 detonator. The fuze is screwed into the TNT block and the whole assembly placed in the base section of the casing. The pin, attached to a length of string, is pushed through the hole in the base section and the lid lowered onto it. Once the mine has been placed, the string is pulled to remove the safety pin. Pressure on the lid now crushes the end of the fuze between the plunger and the anvil; this ignites the friction-sensitive composition to initiate the mine.

Neutralisation

The mine is neutralised by raising the lid and replacing the safety pin, although sufficient pressure would overcome this device and still actuate the fuze.

Disarming

The mine is disarmed by removing the main charge from the mine casing and unscrewing the fuze assembly. The detonator can then be removed from the fuze body and the safety cap replaced.

 
Weight 400 g
Explosive weight 200 g
Explosive type TNT
Fuze UPMAH-1
Length 140 mm
Height 30 mm
Width 70 mm
Operating pressure 3 kg (min)
 

General information

Used in Angola, Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Namibia
Emplacement Manual
Detectability This is a minimum-metal mine and can be very difficult to detect
Anti-handling None
Blast resistance Very susceptible to overpressure
Cross reference Superficially similar to other plastic box mines such as the Egyptian T/78 and Israeli No.4
Holding company Yugoimport SDPR
 

Notes

The yellow-coloured training version of the fuze, UPMAH-1V, also contains a friction-sensitive composition and can be used to initiate a detonator. The composition used in the fuze may not function if it becomes damp but, when dry once more, could become viable. There are unconfirmed reports of plastic detonators being used in PMA-1A, making the mine totally non-metallic and therefore undetectable.

PMA-1A


PMA-2

Description

PMA-2 is a minimum-metal Anti-Personnel (AP) blast mine known within former Yugoslavia as `Pasteta’ (meat-paste tin). The main body is a cylindrical plastic casing filled with TNT. The threaded central fuze well is sealed by a plug during transit and has a small pellet of RDX at the bottom to act as a booster. The fuze assembly has a six-pronged plunger protruding from the fuze body. Beneath the base of the plunger is a friction-sensitive composition, and below that a small detonator. The detonator, which has a thin aluminium casing, is attached to the fuze body by a threaded plastic cap which is bonded into place. A safety pin, attached to a length of string, runs through the fuze body and plunger to prevent initiation. The use of a pronged plunger gives this mine a high degree of blast resistance. The plunger and mine body are normally olive green, though some have been manufactured in white; the fuze body is black.

Operation

The mine is armed by unscrewing the transit plug from the fuze well and inserting the fuze assembly. Once the mine has been placed, the string is pulled to remove the safety pin. Sufficient pressure on the plunger forces it into the friction-sensitive composition to initiate the mine.

Neutralisation

The mine is neutralised by replacing the safety pin (if the holes are aligned).

Disarming The fuze assembly is unscrewed from the mine body to disarm the mine.

Specifications

 
Weight 135 g
Explosive weight 100 g
Explosive type TNT
Fuze UPMAH-2
Diameter 68 mm
Height 61 mm
Operating pressure 7-15 kg
 

General information

Used in Angola, Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Namibia
Emplacement Manual
Detectability This is a minimum-metal mine and can be very difficult to detect
Anti-handling None
Blast resistance Very resistant to overpressure
Holding company Yugoimport SDPR
 

Notes

The training version of this mine, VPMA-2, has a yellow stripe across the body. The training fuze UPMAH-2V, has a yellow aluminium cap in place of the detonator and emits smoke when initiated. The friction composition used in the live fuze may not function if it becomes damp but, when dry, could become viable once more. Packaging for the mines and fuzes is sometimes marked `PAM-2′ instead of `PMA-2′.

PMA-2


PMA-3

Description

PMA-3 is a minimum-metal Anti-Personnel (AP) blast mine. The mine body is made in two halves, the separate upper and lower sections held together by a black rubber cover. The upper section contains the main charge and sits in the cupped lower section so that it can tilt in any direction. During transit and emplacement the halves are fastened by a rigid plastic band secured by a safety pin, which has a length of string attached to it. The base section has a central threaded fuze well on the underside, sealed by a plug and a rubber O-ring. The UPMAH-3 fuze assembly consists of a plastic casing moulded around a small steel pin, the other end of which is lodged in a friction-sensitive composition; above this is the integral M-17 P2 detonator. The fuze pin is protected by a screw-on cap during transit. The fuze is initiated by the shearing action created when the top half is tilted within the lower section. Since an even downward pressure will not initiate the fuze, this mine is blast resistant. From the top and side, only the black rubber cover is visible; the base is green with raised lettering and the lot number stencilled in yellow.

Operation

The mine is armed by removing the detonator well plug and inserting the fuze, holding the assembly by the safety cap. The fuze passes through the base section and lodges in the upper half. Once the fuze is in place, the cap is unscrewed and the well plug replaced; the fuze pin now sits in a recess in the well plug. The mine is positioned and the spring-loaded safety band released remotely by pulling the string. When force on the pressure plate causes the upper section to tilt, the fuze moves with the top half, but the tip of the pin is held by the base. This causes the pin to shear sideways through the friction-sensitive composition, initiating the mine.

Neutralisation

This mine cannot be neutralised: the band cannot be safely fitted onto an armed mine.

Disarming To disarm the mine, the detonator well plug is unscrewed and the fuze assembly removed. The correct way to remove the fuze is to screw a safety cap onto the fuze body and then pull the assembly out of the mine. If there has been any damage to the mine, the plug or the fuze, it is not safe to disarm the mine.

Weight 180 g
Explosive weight 35 g
Explosive type Tetryl
Fuze UPMAH-3
Diameter 111 mm
Height 40 mm
Operating pressure 8-20 kg
 

General information

Used in Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo, Namibia
Emplacement Manual
Detectability Very difficult to detect if the safety band is not present (see Notes)
Anti-handling None
Blast resistance Very resistant to overpressure
Cross reference Similar in design to the Swedish LI-11 and German DM-11
Holding company Yugoimport SDPR
 

Notes

The manufacturer claims that the mine will operate in a temperature range of -20 to +50?C and function reliably for a minimum of six months under unfavourable conditions. During normal use, the safety band remains loosely around the mine once it has been released. The safety band contains a small steel spring that makes detection of this mine considerably easier

PMA-3


PMR-3 (NEW MODEL)

Description

The new PMR-3 is an Anti-Personnel (AP) fragmentation stake mine, refined from the original PMR-3 shown in the previous entry. Recognising that pressure operaton is inappropriate for a fragmentation stake mine, the new PMR-3 is designed solely for tripwire initiation. The main recognition features are the new steel body, which has no grooves around it, and a far smaller fuze. The fuze is fitted into a threaded plastic well in the centre of the steel plate which seals the mine body; this plate unscrews to reveal the main charge of plastic explosive. Two lugs on the side of the mine fit into keyhole slots in the metal stake, which allows the mine to be mounted either way up. When the mine is fixed onto the stake upside down, the tripwire is closer to the ground and easier to conceal. The fuze has exactly the same mechanism as the UMNP-1 booby trap switch (see separate entry), with a spring-loaded striker retained by three small ball-bearings. It has a central spigot and ring for tripwire initiation, but no prongs. The ring is free to rotate and can be used with multiple tripwires. A special safety collar is used to secure the spigot during transit. The new PMR-3 is olive green with markings stencilled in black; the fuze and steel closure plate are unpainted metal.

Operation

The aluminium stake is pushed into the ground up to the yellow mark. Once the fuze has been screwed into the fuze well, the mine can be mounted onto the stake either way up. One or more anchored tripwires are clipped onto the fuze ring before the safety collar is removed to arm the mine. This is done pulling the wire loop on the fuze body into a horizontal position, which cams the ends of the wire apart to release it from the spigot. Sufficient pull on a tripwire tilts the spigot, which cams an internal piston down into the tubular fuze body. The movement is transferred to a central actuating rod which pushes a small plug forward; this allows space for the retaining balls to move in, releasing the striker onto the stab-sensitive detonator assembly. The plastic explosive charge detonates, shattering the steel body and projecting fragments in all directions. This is a powerful mine with an effective range in excess of 20 m.

Neutralisation

The fuze is neutralised by replacing the safety collar around the fuze spigot and pushing the wire loop down against the fuze body.

Disarming

To disarm the mine, the fuze is unscrewed from the central well. The detonator is sealed into the fuze body and cannot be removed.

 
Weight 2 kg
Explosive weight 410 g
Explosive type Plastic
Diameter 77 mm
Operating pull 2-7 kg
Height 128 mm (unfuzed)
 

General information

Used in Bosnia, Croatia
Emplacement Manual
Detectability Easily detectable
Anti-handling None
Blast resistance Unaffected by overpressure
Cross reference An older variant, also designated PMR-3, is covered in the previous entry
 

Notes The new fuze has the same designation (UPMR-3) as the old one, which may lead to some confusion. Other than the spigot and the safety collar, this fuze is identical to the UMNP-1 in every respect.

PMR-3

PMR-3 - детонатор

PMR-3 - детонатор в разрезе


PMR-3 (OLD MODEL)

Description

PMR-3 is an Anti-Personnel (AP) fragmentation stake mine, developed from the PMR 1 and 2A to be more versatile and effective. A newer variant, also designated PMR-3, is in use; details are given in the following entry. The old model steel body has six grooves around it to increase fragmentation, and a central threaded fuze well on the top plate; this plate unscrews to reveal the detonator and booster. Two lugs on the side of the mine fit into keyhole slots in the metal stake supplied; this allows the mine to be mounted either way up. When the mine is fixed onto the stake upside down, the tripwire is closer to the ground and easier to conceal. The fuze is the same as that used with the former Yugoslav PROM-1 AP bounding fragmentation mine: it is known as UPMR-3 or UPROM-1 and may be stencilled with either, or both designations. The fuze has four prongs for pressure actuation and a central spigot with a small ring for tripwire initiation. The ring is free to rotate and can be used with multiple tripwires. A special safety collar is used to secure the prong assembly during transit. PMR-3 is normally painted olive green.

Operation

The mine can be buried (for pressure actuation) or stake mounted either way up, and used with a tripwire. The fuze is screwed into the central fuze well and the safety collar is removed. To do this, the wire loop on the collar is lifted into a horizontal position; this cams the ends of the wire apart to release it from the prong assembly. Once armed, pressure on the prongs, or pull on a tripwire, tilts the prong assembly. A camming action pushes down an internal collar, aligning holes with three retaining balls in the central striker assembly. As the balls escape, the spring-loaded striker is released onto an initiator. This sets off the detonator and booster housed inside the mine, shattering the body and projecting fragments in all directions. The effective range is approximately 15 m when stake mounted, but is substantially reduced when the mine is buried.

Neutralisation The fuze can be neutralised by replacing the safety collar around the fuze spigot and pushing the wire loop down against the fuze body. The fuze should be removed from the body to fully neutralise the mine.

Disarming

To disarm the mine, the top plate is unscrewed and the detonator assembly removed.

 
Weight 2 kg
Explosive weight 410 g
Explosive type TNT
Fuze options UPMR-3/UPROM-1
Diameter 78 mm
Operating pull 9 kg (3 kg pull)
Height 134 mm
 

General information

Used in Bosnia, Croatia, Kosovo
Emplacement Manual
Detectability Easily detectable
Anti-handling None
Blast resistance Unaffected by overpressure
Cross reference A newer model is in use, also designated PMR-3 (see following entry)
Holding company Yugoimport SDPR
 

Notes

PMR-3 is primarily intended to be initiated by tripwire as a stake mine, since burying the mine greatly reduces its lethality. The new variant (following entry) eliminates the capability for pressure actuation. The training version of this mine, VPMR-3, has a yellow band around the top of the mine body.

PMR-3

PMR-3


PMR-4

Description

PMR-4 is an Anti-Personnel (AP) fragmentation stake mine that appears to have been locally manufactured. The cast-steel body is externally ringed with grooves to enhance fragmentation though, unusually, there are no vertical grooves. The hollow body houses the main charge, normally of cast TNT, which has a central detonator cavity. The top surface of the mine body has a central well threaded (M10 x 1) to accept a mechanical tripwire fuze: normally a UPM-1. This fuze is similar to the Czech RO-1 and has a spring-loaded striker retained by a pin; the open end of the fuze body is threaded to accept the M67 percussion detonator assembly. The base of the mine also has a threaded well which is used for the attachment of the wooden stake. The stake has a short threaded metal spigot screwed to the top; this provides a much more positive attachment than the wedge used with the PMR-2A and is less likely to fail under extreme weather conditions. The body is normally painted brown.

Operation

The fuze is fitted with a percussion detonator assembly and screwed into the well on the top surface of the mine body. The mine is positioned and an anchored tripwire is attached to the loop of the striker retaining pin. Sufficient tension on the tripwire extracts the pin, releasing the striker onto the detonator assembly. As the main charge detonates, the steel body is shattered in all directions. The effective range is likely to be approximately 10 m.

Neutralisation

To neutralise the mine, the tripwire must be disconnected or cut, and the striker retaining pin secured into position.

Disarming

With the tripwire disconnected, the mine is disarmed by unscrewing the fuze assembly from the mine body. The detonator assembly should then be unscrewed from the fuze body.

Specifications (estimated)

 
Weight 2 kg
Explosive weight 200 g
Explosive type TNT
Fuze options UPM-1
Diameter 80 mm
Height of mine body 130 mm
Operating pull 2-4 kg
 

General information

Used in Bosnia, Croatia
Emplacement Manual
Detectability Easily detectable
Anti-handling None
Blast resistance Unaffected by overpressure
Cross reference Thought to be locally manufactured
 

Notes

Multiple tripwires can be used with this fuze. Explosives other than TNT (for example, commercial) have been found in some mines.

PMR-4


PMR-U

Description

PMR-U is a locally manufactured Anti-Personnel (AP) fragmentation mine in widespread use throughout Bosnia. The plastic mine body is made in two halves, with an obvious seam around the middle; in the centre of the top is a fuze well, while the base well accepts a steel stake. In the centre of the mine, the main charge is housed in two plastic film canisters, positioned end to end. Around the explosive are steel fragments moulded into plaster of Paris. The mine is generally seen fitted with the Yugoslav UMP-1 fuze, a copy of the Czech RO-1 (see diagram), or the UPMR-2A (shown in the photograph). Both fuzes have a spring-loaded striker retained by a pin to which a tripwire is attached, and accept a percussion detonator assembly such as the M67. The mine is braced in position by a steel rod welded to the stake and wired to the fuze well. PMR-U is black and normally has no markings.

Operation

A fuze is fitted with a percussion detonator assembly and pushed into the fuze well of the emplaced mine. An anchored tripwire is then attached to the loop of the striker retaining pin. Sufficient pull on the tripwire extracts the pin, releasing the striker onto the detonator assembly. As the main charge detonates, the plaster of Paris is shattered and the steel fragments scattered in all directions. The effective range of this mine is likely to be 5 to10 m.

Neutralisation

To neutralise the mine, the tripwire must be disconnected and the striker retaining pin secured into the fuze.

Disarming

With the tripwire disconnected, the mine is disarmed by removing the fuze from the fuze well. The percussion detonator assembly can then be unscrewed from the fuze body.

Specifications (approx)

 
Weight of explosive 100 g
Explosive type Commercial (normally)
Length of mine body 120 mm
Diameter 75 mm
Operating load 2-5 kg
 

General Information

Used in Bosnia, Croatia
Emplacement Manual
Detectability Easily detectable
Blast resistance Unaffected by overpressure
 

Notes

Since PMR-U is locally produced, specifications may vary substantially with availability of components, fuzes and explosive.

PMR-U


PPMP-2

Description

PPMP-2 is a stake-mounted Anti-Personnel (AP) fragmentation mine thought to have been locally manufactured in large quantities. The tubular steel body is diagonally grooved on the outside for enhanced fragmentation. It is threaded at the top end to accept a thick steel plug which has a central threaded fuze well. The body houses the main charge, which is normally a commercial blasting explosive in stick form, wrapped with waxed paper. This charge, held centrally within the body by a ring of the same explosive, is normally surrounded by steel fragments such as chopped nails. The fuze is a copy of the Russian MUV. It uses a tubular aluminium body housing a spring-loaded striker, the protruding end of which is retained by a pin. An aluminium adaptor is used to fit the fuze to the mine body. A square section spigot is welded onto the base of the mine body to locate into the top of the steel stake provided. The mine is also shipped with tripwire and a locally manufactured percussion detonator assembly. PPMP-2 is normally painted olive green and has no markings.

Operation

With the mine emplaced, the fuze (complete with percussion detonator assembly) is screwed into the mine body. An anchored tripwire is attached to the striker retaining pin to arm the mine. Sufficient tension on the tripwire extracts the pin and releases the striker onto the percussion cap of the detonator assembly. As the main charge detonates the steel body is shattered and thrown in all directions, along with the other fragments. The effective range of this mine is likely to be 10 to 15 m.

Neutralisation To neutralise this mine, the tripwire must be cut or disconnected and the striker retaining pin secured into position.

Disarming

With the tripwire disconnected, the fuze assembly is unscrewed from the body to disarm the mine. The percussion detonator assembly can then be unscrewed from the fuze body.

Specifications

 
Weight 1.2 kg
Explosive weight 150 g (approx)
Explosive type Commercial
Diameter 60 mm
Height 140 mm
Operating pressure 2-4 kg
 

General information

Used in Bosnia, Croatia
Emplacement Manual
Detectability Easily detectable
Anti-handling None
Blast resistance Unaffected by overpressure
Manufacturer Locally manufactured in former Yugoslavia
 

Notes

The explosive and fragmentation used in this mine may vary with availability. Commercial explosive may deteriorate and become unstable with time or extremes of temperature; it is therefore unsafe to unscrew the steel plug from the top of the mine body.

PPMP-2


PROM-1

Description

  PROM-1 is an AP bounding fragmentation mine. The smooth bottle-shaped body has a threaded fuze well at the top and is internally grooved for enhanced fragmentation. Down the centre of the mine is a tube filled with propellant, which leads into a chamber in the base plug. The base plug, which is attached to the main body by brass screws, holds the tether wire spool of the detonating fuze assembly. The remainder of this assembly is set inside the main charge, to one side of the central tube. During transit the initiating fuze well is sealed with a brass plug and rubber O-ring. The initiating fuze is the same as that used with the old model former Yugoslav PMR-3 Anti-Personnel (AP) fragmentation stake mine: it is known as UPMR-3 or UPROM-1 and may be stencilled with either, or both designations. The fuze has four prongs for pressure actuation and a central spigot with a small ring for tripwire attachment. The ring is free to rotate and can be used with multiple tripwires. A special safety collar is used to secure the prong assembly during transit. The mine is normally olive green with yellow stencilled markings, and is supplied with two rolls of plastic covered tripwire, each 16 m long.

Operation

The fuze is screwed into the fuze well and the mine buried so that the top of the fuze is exposed. The safety collar is removed after pulling the wire loop into a horizontal position; this cams the ends of the wire apart to release it from the prong assembly. Once armed, pressure on the prongs, or pull on a tripwire, tilts the prong assembly. This pushes down an internal collar, aligning holes with three retaining balls in the central striker assembly. As the balls escape, the spring-loaded striker is released onto the initiator. The propellant in the central tube is ignited, which shears the brass screws and propels the mine body into the air, leaving the base plug in the ground. When the tether wire becomes taut, the detonator assembly is jerked down onto a spike to initiate the main charge. The mine body is shattered in all directions, with an effective range of approximately 20 m.

Neutralisation

The fuze is neutralised by replacing the safety collar around the fuze spigot and pushing the wire loop down against the fuze body. The fuze should be unscrewed from the body to fully neutralise the mine. The brass transit cap should then be screwed into the fuze well.

Disarming

This mine cannot be fully disarmed, since the detonator is permanently housed within the mine body.

 
Weight 3 kg
Explosive weight 425 g
Explosive type TNT/RDX (50/50)
Fuze options UPROM-1, UPMR-3
Diameter 75 mm
Height 260 mm
Operating pressure 9 kg (3 kg pull)
 

General information

Used in Angola, Bosnia, Croatia, Iraq, Kosovo, Namibia
Emplacement Manual
Detectability Easily detectable
Anti-handling None
Blast resistance Unaffected by overpressure
Holding company Yugoimport SDPR

Notes

Other PROM variants, PROM-2 and PROM-KD have also been manufactured. There are unconfirmed reports of the use of PROM-KD. The training version of this mine, VPROM-1, has a broad yellow band around the top of the mine body and four holes to vent smoke.

PROM-1


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